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People

Population:
1,336,718,015 (July 2011 est.)

Age Distribution:
0-14 years: 17.6% (male 126,634,384/female 108,463,142)
15-64 years: 73.6% (male 505,326,577/female 477,953,883)
65 years and over: 8.9% (male 56,823,028/female 61,517,001) (2011 est.)

Median Age:
total: 35.5 years
male: 34.9 years
female: 36.2 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:
0.493% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:
12.29 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:
7.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Urbanization:
urban population: 47% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities Population:
Shanghai 16.575 million
Beijing (capital) 12.214 million
Chongqing 9.401 million
Shenzhen 9.005 million
Guangzhou 8.884 million (2009)

Gender Ratio:
at birth: 1.133 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:
total: 16.06 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 113
male: 15.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth:
total population: 74.68 years
country comparison to the world: 96
male: 72.68 years
female: 76.94 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:
1.54 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182

Major Infectious Diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic Groups:
Han Chinese 91.5%
Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)

Religions:
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%
Muslim 1%-2%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages:
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect) (official)
Yue (Cantonese)
Wu (Shanghainese)
Minbei (Fuzhou)
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese)
Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol
Uighur is official in Xinjiang
Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.6%
male: 95.7%
female: 87.6% (2007)

School Life Expectancy (Primary to Tertiary Education):
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2009)

Education Expenditures:
1.9% of GDP (1999)
country comparison to the world: 172

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